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Salat

Main Sources for this chapter:

1.      Al‑Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar.

2.      Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq.

3.      Fiqh Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, Muhammad J. Maghniya.

4.      Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya.

 

(All sources of reference were quoted from Al‑Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar.)

 

SALAT AS PERFORMED BY MADH'HABS   go to top of page

As of 1995 statistics, of the five billions of the total world's population the Muslims constitute 1,236,000,000.  Statistically speaking, of this one billion and 236 million Muslims:

The Shi'a (Imamiyah) ................................................................................ 282,000,000 (282 million),

 

The Sunni, divided into various Madh'habs stand at:

  1. Hanafi:.....................................................................................................380,000,000 (380 million),

  2. Maaliki:.....................................................................................................305,000,000 (305 million),

  3. Shafi'i:......................................................................................................190,000,000 (190 million),

  4. Hanbali:................................................ ....................................................52,000,000 (52 Million)

  5. Others: 

    27,000,000 (27 million):  These others include Ahmadiya, Baha'is, Kharijis, Ismailis, Zaidis, Druzes, etc.  [1]

 

      Each Madh'hab goes by specific Ah'kaam احكام (rules) about the Salat according to its interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah.  These Ah'kaam (rules) will be briefly discussed in this chapter, since the details can be voluminous.

      To clarify the matter well, the subject of Salat has to be divided into 3 categories:

1.     Salat preliminaries (Wudu, Athan, etc.),

2.     The Salat itself, and

3.     Invalidators of Salat. 

      The focus of the discussion will be on the Shi'a Ah'kaam compared to the Sunnis.  Only the major points will be discussed leaving the smaller points to be researched by the reader.

         It is noteworthy that the belief of a Shi'i and that of a Sunni are similar and alike by about 95% degree.  Some technical differences do exist however, though minor they are, notwithstanding the fact that the less educated Muslim tends to dwell on them and exaggerate.  A good many people deliberately blow these differences out of proportion, often in a move for self‑exaltation and to gain self-recognition to themselves or to others of their kind.

 

FIQH:  الفــــــقه    go to top of page

Each of the Shi'a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh.  The Fiqh is the summation of the rules and regulations formulated by the leader of the Madh'hab according to certain methodology (format) formulated by that Madh'hab.  Since each Madh'hab has its particular Fiqh, the rules of one Madh'hab may differ in subtle or not so subtle ways from other Madh'habs.  A Hanafi may differ from a Shafi'i and Hanbali, a Maaliki may differ from Hanafi or Shafi'i or Shi'a.  The Shi'a may differ from most of the Sunni Madh'habs, or be in agreement with 3 out of 4 in some aspects.  In this chapter, some outstanding matter in the technique of performing the Salat are explained.

 

EXPLAINING THE TABLES:   go to top of page

      The subject of Salat has been divided into categories, each category is put in a table.  To have more detail about some points the reader is referred to the specific items that appear below that table.  These items explain the rules (Ah'kaam) of different Madh'habs.  Thus it is recommended that the reader pays special attention to the rules in the items and compare them with those appearing in the table itself.

 

TABLE I,  SALAT PRELIMINARIES, WUDU:   go to top of page

WUDU

THE SHI'A:

Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari)

THE SUNNI

The 4 Schools.

THE FACE:

Wash the face with the right hand from upper forehead to the chin, with the span of the hand as the outer limit.

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item, (Face), below.

THE ARMS:

Wash the right arm (including the hand) from the elbow down (including hand) with the left hand;  then likewise wash the left arm from the elbow down with the right hand.

Wash the right arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the left hand;  then wash the left arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the right hand.

THE HEAD:

Wipe the front of the head (toward the forehead) with the wet fingers.

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item 0 (Head), below.

THE FEET:

Wipe the dorsal part of the foot by the wet corresponding hand up to the cuboid elevation of the foot: first the right then the left foot.

Wash the feet, right first then the left.  See item 0 (Bare Feet), below.

The Covered feet

Not permitted.

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Covered Feet), below.

The hands

Preferable to wash the hands before Wudu, once or twice.  It is Musítahab (preferable).

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Hands), below.

Gargling

A person may gargle/rinse mouth before Wudu, once or twice.  It is Musítahab (preferable).

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Gargling), below.

Sniffing

A person may sniff and blow his nose before Wudu, once or twice.  It is Musítahab (preferable).

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Sniffing), below.

The ears

Not applicable.

See item (Ears), below.

The neck

Not applicable.

See item  (Neck), below.

 

Face:  Because of disagreement of what defines face, the following shows some conclusions:

  1. Hanafi:     From upper forehead to and including the chin, and from ear to ear including the ear lobe.

  2. Maaliki:     From upper forehead to and including the chin, not including the skin in front of the ear.

  3. Shafi'i:     From upper forehead to and including the chin under the chin area, and from ear to ear.

  4. Hanbali:     From upper forehead to and including the chin, and ear to ear.[2]

Head:  The Shi'a wipe the front of the head with the wet four fingers from the center of the head to the front.  But because of disagreement of what defines surface area of the head, the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows:

  1. Hanafi:     With new water, to wipe a quarter of the head (others say a third of the head).

  2. Maaliki:     With new water, to wipe the whole head (others say a third or two thirds of the head), without the ears.

  3. Shafi'i:     Similar to the Shi'a, but with new water.

  4. Hanbali:     With new water, to wipe the whole head including the ears.[3]

Bare Feet:  The Shi'a wipe the dorsal part of the feet up to the cubicle (height of foot), with the wet corresponding hand, first the right then the left.  But because of disagreement of the interpretation of the Ayah of Wudu (in Surah Al-Maa'ida) the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows:   The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: To wash the whole foot, up to the ankle.  Some do it once, others twice or even three times.  Each side has its valid reasons and way of interpretation, and each claims it is the correct way.

Covered Feet:  The Shi'a prohibit wiping over the dorsal part of the covered feet, whether covered with socks of any kind, or light shoes.  But because of disagreement of the interpretation of some traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows: The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do allow wiping over socks or light shoes, however, the rules in this regard are divergent.  Also to thus wipe only when traveling for a period of 3 days without taking off the cover of the feet, or being at home for a period (usually one day) and doing so, led to many arguments.[4]

Hands:  It is preferable (Musítahab) to wash the hands before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni.  The differences were about the number of times the hands are to be washed.  The Hanbali differed from others in regarding washing the hands before Wudu as a Must (Wajib).

Gargling and/or Mouth-rinsing:  It is preferable (Musítahab) to gargle and/or to rinse the mouth before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni.  The differences were about the number of times gargling and/or rinsing are to take place.  The Hanbali differed from others in that they regard gargling and/or rinsing the mouth before Wudu as a Must (Wajib).

Sniffing:  It is preferable (Musítahab) to clean the nose by sniffing then blowing it, before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni.  The differences are about the number of times to do the procedure and the technique of doing it.

Ears:  While the Shi'a prohibit including the ears in the Wudu, the other Madh'habs differed as to whether the ears are part of the head and therefore are to be cleaned, and if so how to be cleaned, and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or not:

  1. Hanafi:    Wiping the ears as Sunnah, to be done along with wiping the head.

  2. Maaliki:    Wiping the ears as part of the head as preferable (Musítahab).

  3. Shafi'i:     Wiping the ears with new water as Sunnah.

  4. Hanbali:   Wiping the ears as a Must (Wajib), to be done along with wiping the head.[5]

Neck (Tat'weeq):  While the Shi'a prohibit including the neck in the Wudu, the other Madh'habs differed whether to include it and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or as a sign of reverence, or even Mak'rooh to do so.  However, some of the Hanafi and Shafi'i seem to allow it.[6]

 

TABLE II,  SALAT PRELIMINARIES, TAYAMMUM:   go to top of page

TAYAMMUM

THE SHI'A:

Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari)

THE SUNNI

The 4 schools.

STEP ONE:

Strike the palms of both hands on dusty area, pure earth, sand, or stone.

Wipe the forehead with the palms of the hands and go down the front part of the nose to its tip.

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Tayammum), below.

STEP TWO:

Strike the palms of both hands on pure earth, sand, dust, or stone once more.

Starting from the wrist, wipe the back of the right hand with the palm of left hand.

Starting from the wrist, wipe the back of the left hand with the palm of right hand.

 

Tayammum:   التـيــــمـم   The medium to strike the hands on is variable, for example,  for the Shi'a and the Hanafi you can strike on dust, earth, sand, or rock, while with Shafi'i it is only earth or sand, Maaliki it is earth, sand or rocks, metal or many other media.  As to the Hanbali, only the earth is allowed as the medium.

  1. Hanafi:     Strike the palms of both hands, then shake them, then wipe the whole face, then strike the palms of both hands again, shake them, then wipe the back of the hand up to the elbow.

  2. Maaliki and Shafi'i: Strike the palms of both hands once then wipe the whole face, then strike the palms of both hands again, then wipe the back of the hand up to the elbow (others say to the wrist).

  3. Hanbali:  Strike the palms of both hands once then wipe the whole face including the total beard, then wipe the back of the hand up to the wrist, first the right then the left.[7]

 

TABLE III,  SALAT PRELIMINARIES, ATHAN:   go to top of page

Preliminaries

ATHAN

THE SHI'A:

Ithna Ashari

THE SUNNI

The 4 schools.

ALLAAHU AKBAR

(Allah is the Greatest)

To be said 4 times.

Variable numbers depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Takbiraat), below.

ASH'HADU ANN LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH

(I declare there is no Deity except Allah)

 

To be said 2 times.

To be said 2 times.

ASH'HADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN RASOOLUL-LLAAH

(I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah)

To be said 2 times.

To be said 2 times.

ASH'HADU ANNA ALIYYAN WALIYU-LLAAH

(I declare that Ali is the Devotee of Allah)

(This is Musítahab (an option or preferable)

To be said 2 times.

See item (Wali), below.

Not said.

HAYYA ALA SALAAH

(Hasten for Salat)

To be said 2 times.

To be said 2 times.

HAYYA ALA FALAAH

(Hasten toward eternal bliss)

To be said 2 times.

To be said 2 times.

HAYYA ALA KHAYR AL-AMAL

(Hasten for the best of deeds)

To be said 2 times.

Not said.  See item  (Khayr Al-Amal), below.

ALLAAHU AKBAR

Allah is the Greatest

To be said 2 times.

To be said 2 times.

LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH

(There is no Deity except Allah)

To be said 2 times.

To be said once.

AL-SALATU KHAYRUN MINA NAWM

(Salat is better than sleep)

Not said.

To be said 2 times.

See item (Nawm), below.

 

Athan, a must or otherwise: الأذان  ٍ Shi'a, Hanafi, Maaliki, and Shafi'i say Athan is a Sunnahسنه   , near Wajib (a Must).  Al-Hanbali on the other hand regards Athan as Fardh (a must)  واجــب, while many of its followers regard it as Sunnah.

Takbiraat:   التــكبـــيـرات   All say Takbiraat 4 times except the Maaliki who say it 2 times.

 

Wali: ولي    As an option (even Musítahab) the Shi'a say Ali is the devotee of Allah twice.  None of the Sunni Madh'habs say it.  Many Shi'a do not say it either.

 

Khayr Al-Amal:     حي على خـــيـر العــمــــلTo say Hayya Ala Khayr Al-Amal is a must (Wajib) for the Shi'a, since this was said by the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr, and early days of Omar's Khilaafah, as well as continued by Ibn Omar, Ali ibn Al-Husain, Zayd ibn Arqam, Imam Ali and numerous others all through.  This was stopped by order of Khalifa Omar (r) since according to his Ij'tihaad he was afraid that saying it in Athan or Iqaama would discourage Muslims from emphasizing Jihad.[8]

      None of the Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, or Hanbali says it.

 

Nawm:    خـير من النـومBecause this was not said at the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) the Shi'a  do not say it in their Athan or Iqaama.  The phrase of (Salat is better than sleeping) was introduced by Khalifa Omar (r).[9]  This became a routine afterwards by Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali.  Imam Ali said not to increase in the Athan what was not intended in it.

      Shafi'i:  It is Mak'rooh (detestable) to say the phrase.

 

Iqaama  الإقــــامه While the Shi'a utter the Iqaama like their Athan but with every phrase twice said, and the last phrase once, the Sunni Madh'habs have differed remarkably in the number of times the phrases (be they Takbiraat or others) are said.

 

TABLE IV,  SALAT PROPER:   go to top of page

SALAT

ITSELF

THE SHI'A:

Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari)

THE SUNNI

The 4 schools.

INTENTION, TAKBIR, (WUQOOF).

Takbir Iftitah: a Must (Rukn)  ركن .

 

Variable depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Takbir Iftitah) below.

ARMS' POSITION

Arms not to be folded.

Arms to be folded.  See item (Arms) below.

(BAS'MALAH): Bismillah Al‑Rahman Al-Rahim.

 

Bas'malah has to be said before Fatiha or any other Surah, preferably loudly.

Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab.  See item (Bas'malah) below.

AMEN

Not to be said after Surah Al-Fatiha while in Salat

To be said after Fatiha in Salat.  See item, (Amen) below.

COMPLETE SURAH AFTER AL‑FATIHA

Reading no less than a complete Surah after Fatiha.

May read part of Surah after Fatiha.  See item (Surah) below.

3rd & 4th RAK'A

Reading Al-Fatiha or saying 3 times:

Subhaana Allah wal Hamdu Lillaah, wa la Ilaaha Illa Allah wa Allah Akbar

Saying Surah Al-Fatiha.

RUKOO

To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Al-Adheemi wa Bi‑Hamdih.

Subhaana Rabbiya Al-Adheem.

SUJOOD

To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Al-A'la wa Bi‑Hamdih.

Subhaana Rabbiya Al-A'la.

QUNOOT

Highly preferable (valued);  Qunoot is done before Rukoo of the second Rak'a  (Usually a Du'aa from the Quran).

Qunoot is done in Salat of Witr and others.  See item   (Qunoot) below.

JULOOS

(Forefinger)

During Tashah'hud no pointing with the forefinger or moving it in circles.

 

To point with the forefinger or move it in circles.  See item  (forefinger) below.

JULOOS

(Feet position)

Sitting comfortably on the bent feet.

Sitting on folded left foot, big toe of right foot to touch the ground.  See item (Toe) below.

TASHAH'HUD

Wording of Tashah'hud are specific as Ahlul Bayt quoted the Prophet (pbuh).

Wording of Tashah'hud as taught by Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas'ood, or Ibn Omar quoting the Prophet (pbuh).  See item (Tashah'hud) below.

TASLEEM

Wording of Tasleem are specific as Ahlul Bayt quoted the Prophet (pbuh).

Wording of Tasleem are specific to various Madh'habs.  See item (Tasleem) below.

 

Takbir Iftitah:  التـكبـــــيـر

To say Allaahu Akbar after the intention to pray is Wajib (a Must) with the Shi'a, Maaliki, and Hanbali.

  1. The Hanafi may say any of the wordings of Al-Asmaa Al-Husna, yet Abu Yusuf  of the Hanafi Madhíhab prefers the Shi'a ruling.

  2. The Shafi'i may say Allah Al-Akbar. (they have added Al, meaning the).[10]

Folding Arms:      التـكـتــــــف

The Shi'a, along with the Maaliki do not fold their arms while in Wuqoof, though it is allowed if believed as an option of reverence on the part of the person praying.  Some Shi'a authorities even regard it as an invalidator of the Salat (if done thinking this is the correct way).[11]  It is said that folding the arms was started after the Prophet (pbuh).

  1. Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali:  Regard folding the arms as preferable (Musítahab) as a sign of reverence, therefore, they subscribe to folding the arms during Wuqoof, however they differ in the manner the right arm is to be put on the left, whether on lower chest or its upper, in a female different from a male.

  2. Maaliki regards folding the arms, if done, as allowed, but not a Sunnah.

Bas'malah:    البــســـــــمـله

While the Shi'a start the Surahs by saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim (Bas'malah), as part of the Surah, they are to say it loud enough to be heard.  The Prophet (pbuh) used to start Al-Fatiha with Bas'malah but Mu'awiya was the culprit in deleting it.[12]

  1. Hanafi, and Maaliki:  They regard Bas'malah as not part of Surah Fatiha, so they read Surah Al-Fatiha without it, though they have the option to say it.  However, they say Bas'malah with the subsequent Surahs.  Also, the Hanafi and Hanbali can read it without being heard.  Maaliki would not read at all.

  2. Shafi'i and Hanbali: Regard Bas'malah as part and parcel of Al-Fatiha, and has to be said loudly.[13]

Amen آمـيـن       

Because Amen is a Hebrew word, the Shi'a's Fiqh prohibits saying it during Salat, otherwise their Salat becomes invalid.  However they can say ďAmenĒ when not in Salat.  Instead of Amen, the Shi'a say Al-Hamdu Lillaah.[14]

  1. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali:  As Musítahab (preferable) they say Amen after reading of the Fatiha during Salat.  They follow what Abu Hurairah once recommended to utter ďAmenĒ after Al-Fatiha, but the Shi'a claim that that specific narration was not credible.[15]

Complete Surah:  ســــوره  كامــــــلـه 

While with the Shi'a a complete (not partial) Surah has to be said following Al-Fatiha during Salat, and without this rule the Salat is invalidated.  Other Madh'habs are divided about this point, for instance, with the Hanafi portion of a Surah is sufficient, even one Ayah.

Qunoot:       القـنـــــوت

Qunoot is saying a Du'aa, usually a passage from the Holy Quran.  Qunoot is highly recommended (preferable) with the Shi'a, since the Prophet (pbuh) used to do so.  Qunoot is not practiced regularly in the other Madh'habs during regular Salat, even though the Prophet (pbuh) used to practice it.  It was Mu'awiya who stopped it.[16]  As it evolved, Qunoot is now said during Subh Salat (morning prayer) by the Maaliki and Shafi'i.  As to the Hanafi and Hanbali, they say Qunoot during Witr Salat in various manners.

Forefinger:    اصـبــــع الســــــبابـه

The Shi'a do not point with the forefinger while in Tashah'hud.  The Hanafi and Shafi'i do point with the forefinger and even move it in a circular manner, as a preferable (Mus'tahab) procedure.

Toe:   اصـبـــع القـــــدم

While the Shi'a are to sit comfortably on the folded feet during Tashah'hud, the Hanafi are to sit on the twisted left foot while the big toe of the right foot is touching the floor.

Tashah'hud:  التـشــــــهــد

The Shi'a follow the version of Tashah'hud as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh).

  1. The Hanafi follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Mas'ood, quoting the Prophet (pbuh).

  2. The Maaliki follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Omar, quoting the Prophet (pbuh).

  3. While the Shafi'i and Hanbali follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Abbas, quoting the Prophet (pbuh).

Tasleem:  التـســــــلـيـم   

The Shi'a follow the version of Tasleem as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh).  Tasleem is a Must (Wajib).  The Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do Tasleem in various forms as appears in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.  It is regarded as Wajib (a Must) by the Maaliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali; and as Sunnah by the Hanafi.[17]

 

OTHER SALATS:   go to top of page

Salat Al-Janaaza  صـــلاه الجـــــنـازه  While the Shi'a say 5 Takbiraat with Al-Fatiha not as a Must (not Wajib), the other Madh'habs differed whether Fatiha is a Must (Wajib) or not.  The Sunni Madh'habs say 4 Takbiraats, with Hanafi and Maaliki not requiring Al-Fatiha as a Must; while the Shafi'i and Hanbali claim Al-Fatiha as a Must reading.[18]

Salat Al-Jumu'ah:    صـــلاه الجـمــعه The Shi'a do Qunoot (Du'aa) before Rukoo in the first Rak'a and optionally a Qunoot after Rukoo in the second Rak'a.  The minimum number of attendants is to be 5.  The Sunni do not perform Qunoot during Salat al-Jumuíah, and minimum number of attendants with Hanafi is 5 (others say 7), Maaliki 12, Shafi'i and Hanbali 40.

Salat Al-Eid  صـلاه العـــــيـد  The Shi'a along with Shafi'i can perform Salat Eid individually as well as in congregation, while Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali it has to be only in congregation.  The Shi'a do Qunoot with a poetic Du'aa after each of 5 Takbirs in the first Rak'a, and 4 Takbirs of the 2nd Rak'a.  Other Madh'habs have various number of Takbiraat without Qunoot.

Salat of Nafal (Sunnah):    صـلاه نافــــله او صـلاه ألســــــنـه  Variable number of Rakías and order before or after the obligatory Salat from each Madh'hab to the other.

Other Salats: For other Salats such as for earthquake, Kusoof and Khusoof, the details are more than this chapter is intended for.

 

TABLE V,  SALAT PARAMETERS:   go to top of page

SALAT

PARAMETERS

THE SHI'A:

Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari)

THE SUNNI

The 4 schools.

TIMING

Five times a day on time.  Have the option to pray Dhuhr to be followed by Asr, also Maghrib then Ishaa' in the specified time.

Emphasis on the specific times with options.  See item (Time) below.

SUJOOD REQUIREMENTS

Forehead to be on pure earth or non edibles.  No Sujood on fabric, metal, etc.

Sujood media is variable.  See item (Sujood medium),  below.

PLACE REQUIREMENTS

Should be Halal, not confiscated or forcefully taken from others.

Similar to the Shi'a with minor variations.

MEN'S CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS

No silk or gold.  Minimally Ow'ra has to be covered, preferably covered with a garb.

Similar to the Shi'a with minor variations in defining Ow'ra.

WOMEN'S CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS

Silk or gold OK.  Cover from head to ankles.  Face, hands, and feet to show.

Cover definition variable, see item (Cover) below.

 

Time of Salat:    أوقــــات الصـــــلاه Both the Shi'a and the Sunni emphasize performing the Salats at their specific times.  However, they also give options (as a second best) for performing the Salat at more convenient times.  Each Madh'hab has its sources of Hadith and Tradition to fall upon.  The Fiqh of the Shi'a allows praying Dhuhr Salat to be followed by Asr, (in this order), from Zawal (mid-day) till before sun-set.  It also allows praying Maghrib Salat to be followed by Ishaa', (in this order), from after sun-set Ghuroob) till mid-night.  Since this makes it convenient for them, with less chance of missing Salats and less interruption of work, many Shi'a choose this option though it is less meritorious than performing Salat strictly on the appointed times.  They refer to many Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) whereby the Prophet (pbuh) prayed Dhuhr followed by Asr (and Maghrib followed by Ishaa') at times of no travel, fear, or rain.[19]

  1. Hanafi:      Perform according to the specified time, but differed about defining those times.[20]

  2. Maaliki, and Hanbali make available two options, one of choice and one of necessity.  The Shafi'i do likewise but with other specifications.[21]

  3. The four Madh'habs do combine the Salats (Dhuhr and Asr) or (Maghrib and Ishaa') at times of travel, fear, and/or rain, but they differ about many points in that regard too.

Sujood Medium:   موضـــع الســـــجـودFor Sujood, Fiqh of the Shi'a emphasizes putting the forehead on pure earth, paper, non edibles or non wearable.  No Sujood can be done on fabric, rugs, metal, etc.  Most Shi'a do Sujood on Turbah  تـربــــه   (A clay kept clean for Sujood, and no one is allowed to trample on it or make it dirty, otherwise it is to be replaced.  Also, while in Sujood, the Shi'a exclude the tip of the nose to touch the ground.

1.     Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali allow Sujood on variable media, including rugs, cloths, metal, and earth.  Some require the tip of the nose to touch the ground as part of Sujood, along with some specifics about that.[22]

 

:     العــــــوره  Cover (Ow'ra)Ow'ra is the part of the body to be covered, especially   during Salat.  For men the Shi'a subscribe to covering the pelvic part, better still from the umbilicus to the knees (covering them).  The Sunni Madh'habs have minor variations from the Shi'a.  As to women, they should cover everything except the face, hands, and the feet.  Some Sunnis include the feet as Ow'ra.[23]

Besides the above invalidators of Wudu and Salat, which is more or less agreed upon by all Madh'habs, other factors do exist.  If these factors do take place on purpose or unwillingly, (even before last words of Salat), they will invalidate it.  Other outstanding points in the Shi'a Fiqh are listed below:

 

Invalidators during Salat (according to the Shi'a):   go to top of page

  1. Turning:    To turn left, right or to the back while in Salat will invalidate the Salat.

  2. Talking:    No talking, even to utter two letters (other than the Salat itself).

  3. Laughing:    No laughing, whether loud or not loud.

  4. Crying:    Any form of crying is unacceptable except crying out of Awe to the Almighty.

  5. Eating:    No eating or drinking while in Salat.

  6. Walking:    No walking during Salat.

Invalidators during Salat (according to the Sunni):    go to top of page

In addition to the invalidators specified by the Shi'a, the Sunni add:

  1. Hanafi add clearing the throat, whining, reading of the Mus'haf or performing Sujood on unclean spot, among other things.

  2. Maaliki add ďnot-saying the intentionĒ, blowing, or making noise among other points.

  3. Shafi'i and Hanbali add whining if two letters are recognized in it, in addition to many other complex conditions.

 

TABLE VI,  WUDU AND SALAT INVALIDATORS:   go to top of page

SALAT INVALIDATORS

THE SHI'A

Ithna Ashari

THE SUNNI

(4 schools)

DISCHARGES

Going to the bathroom (urinating, having a bowel movement, passing gas).

OTHER DISCHARGES

The flow of blood or pus from any part of the body, including the monthly periods of the female and the sexual discharge of the male.

VOMITING

Vomiting.

SLEEP

Falling asleep.

CONSCIOUSNESS

Losing one's reason whatever the cause.

GLOSSARY FOR CHAPTER #3   go to top of page

 

Abu Bakr: First Khalifa after the Prophet (pbuh).
Abu Yusuf: Student of Abu Hanifa, had his own Fiqh conclusions, he was politically involved in Abbasi government.
Ah'kaam: The detailed rules and regulations of the Shari'ah, according to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurist.
Ahlul Bayt: Fatima and the Designated twelve Imams from Ali to Al‑Mahdi, who safeguarded the teaching of Islam and conferred it to the Ummah as Muham≠mad (pbuh) had taught it.
Ahmadiya: A movement originated in Pakistan who believe in continuation of Prophethood through time.
Al‑Asmaa Al‑Husna: The ninety nine sublime attributes of the Almighty.
Ali ibn Al‑Husain: The fourth Designated Imam, (Zainul Abideen).
Baha'is: A movement originated in Iran as a corrupted format of the Shi'a, politically minded.
Bas'malah: Saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim.
Druze: A movement originated in Syria as a corrupted format of Islam.
Fiqh: Rules and regulations of Islam.
Ghuroob: Time of sunset.
Hanafi: A Sunni School of Thought.
Hanbali: A Sunni School of Thought.
Ibn Abbas: A Sahaabi, well versed in Islam, tutored by Imam Ali.
Ibn Mas'ood: A Sahaabi, highly respected.
Ibn Omar: A Sahaabi, highly respected.
Ij'tihaad: A process for the scholars in Islam to solve intricate Fiqh problems specific to the period of time in which they were presented.
Imam Ali: Cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), raised by him, married his daughter Fatima, extremely strict about teachings of the Sunnah.  His teachings are followed by the Shi'a.
Ismailis: One of the off‑shoots of the generic Shi'a, most followers are in Indian subcontinent.
Kharijis: Rebels against authority in the name of Islam.
Khilaafah: Process of rule after the Prophet (pbuh) passed away.
Maaliki: A Sunni School of Thought.
Madh'hab: Fiqh of a School of Thought in Islam.
Mu'awiya: First of Benu Umayya to become Khalifa, instituted many un-Islamic practices such as monarchy.
Mus'tahab: Preferable.
Must (Wajib): Has to be done from Islamic point of view.
Omar: The second great Khalifa after the Prophet (pbuh), was son-in-law of Ali.
Salat of Janaaza:  Special Salat for the deceased.
Shafi'i: A Sunni School of Thought.
Shari'ah: The Divine Constitution of Islam.
Shi'a: Followers of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as taught by the Prophet's family (Ahlul Bayt).
Sunnah: Tradition of the Prophet (pbuh).
Sunni: Followers of the Sahaaba and Tabi'in's teaching of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh).
Surah: Chapter of the Quran.
Takbiraat: Saying Allaahu Akbar.
Tat'weeq: Wetting the neck during Wudu by one of the Madh'habs.
Turbah: A clean piece of clay kept for Sujood of the Shi'a.
Witr Salat: A special Salat besides the five daily Salats.
Zaidis: A branch of the generic Shi'a believing in 5 Imams.
Zawal: Mid-day time when the sun is usually at its height.
Zayd ibn Arqam: A great Sahaabi.

────════════════────

     [1] As reported by Youssef M'roueh in the convention of the Assembly of Ahlul Bayt held at the IEC, Potomac, Nov. 17, 1996.  Youssef M'roueh is a Muslim scholar, author and historian of science, and radiation control physicist).

     [2] Al-Mun'taqa, Shar'h Mu'watta, Vol. 1, Page 35.  Also, Bidayat Al-Muj'tahid, Vol. 1, Page 10.  Also Al-Rowdh Al-Nadi, Page 35.

     [3] Shar'h Sahih Muslim, Al-Nawawi, Vol. 4, Page 107.  Also Al-Mabsoot, Al-Sarkhasi, Vol. 1, Page 65.  Also Ghaayat Al-Mun'taha, Page 31.

     [4] Tafseer Al-Razi, Vol. 3, Page 371.  Bidayat Al-Muj'tahid, Vol. 1, Page 17.

     [5] Al-Hidaya, Vol. 1, Page 4.  Also Umdat Al-Fiqh according to Ahmad, Vol. 1, Page  13.

     [6] Al-Mun'ia, Page 11.  Also Fataawa Ibn Taymiya, 1, Page 47, and Shir'at Al-Islam, Page 92.

     [7] Al-Mabsoot, Vol. 1, Page 106.  Also Al-Muntaqa, Vol. 1, Page 114.  Also Al-Mughni, Vol. 1, Page 255.

     [8]  Al-Bahr Al-Zaakhir, Vol. 1, Page 192.  Also Al-Muhalla, Vol. 3, Page 160.

     [9]  Mu'watta Malik, in Masabih Al-Sunnah, Al-Baghwi, Vol. 1, Page 37.

     [10] Shar'h Al-Mu'watta, Al-Baji, Vol. 1, Page 142.  Also Al-Mughni, Ibn Qidaamah, Vol.

     [11] Al-Maj'moo', Vol. 1, Page 312.

 

     [12]  Al-Umm, Al-Shafi'i, Vol. 1, Page 108.

 

      [13]  

Al-Uddah, Vol. 2, Box 410.  Also Al-Mun'taqa, Vol. 1, Page 151.

 

     [14]  

Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Vol. 3, Page 331. 

Also Fiqh according to the five  Madh'habs, by Muhammad J. Maghniya, Page 111.

 

     [15]  

Bukhari, Section Salat.  Also Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya,

Page 111.

     [16] Al‑Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 3.

     [17] Kashf Al-Ghumma, Al-Sha'rani, Vol. 2, Page 220.  Also Mus'nad Ahmad, Vol. 2, Page 162.

     [18] Ma'ani Al-Athar, Vol. 1, Page 288.

     [19]Mus'nad Ahmad, Vol. 1, Page 221 and 251.  Shar'h Mu'watta, Al-Zarqani Vol. 1, Page 263.  Mu'watta, Malik, Hadith of combining Salats.  Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya.  Also Al-Saadiq and the four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 3, Page 272.

     [20]Al-Hidaya, Vol. 1, Page 24.

     [21]Al-Mukh'tasar, Ibn Ishaaq, Page 15.  Also Al-Muhadh'dhab, Shirazi, Vol. 1, Page 52.

     [22]Al-Nawawi, Shar'h Muslim, Vol. 4, Page 208.

     [23]Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya, Page 92.